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Santi Leonéren arrapostua

Tronu demako seigarren denboraldian, hondar kapituluetarik batean, burdinatik sortuak errege -edo erregina- berria hautatzekotan daudela, Theon Greyjoyk Euron osabari aurpegiratu dio urte luzeetan kanpoan ibili izana, burdinazko irleetarik urrun, “gallivanting the world”. Arrapostua berehala etorriko zaio, Euronen beraren ahotik: “Gallivanting? Horiek dira jauntxo fin horiekin ikasi dituzun solasak?”

Ez dakit ohartu garen, eta ohartu bagara, noraino, baina hizkuntza guzietan bada tarte bat hizkuntza mintzatuaren eta arau kultuaren edo estandarraren edo dena delakoaren artean. Gurean, tarte hori zirritua edo arrakala den bertze kontu bat da, baina, nire iduriko, normala da hizkuntza mintzatua eta idatzia diferenteak izatea -halere, Iñaki Segurolaren Juan Luis Zabalarekin azpeitieraz eztabaidatzeko eginahalak ikusita, ez dakit guziendako hain argi dagoen-; eta normala da, nire ustez, hiztun ez alfabetatu batek problemak izatea forma estandarra ulertzeko -berriz ere, kontua neurria litzateke-: gure amatxik, erdaldun peto-petoa bera, aldioro galdegiten zidan zer ote zen albistegietan hainbertze aldiz ateratzen zen “obsoleto” hura.

Tuteran lanean ari nintzelarik, bertako nire lankide zenbaitek ohartarazten zidan distantzia handiagoa dagoela Iruñetik Tuterara, Tuteratik Iruñera baino. Alegia, Iruñekook nonbait espero izaten dugula, munduko gauzarik normalena balitz bezala, Tuterako jendea hiri buruzagira etortzea, baina neke izugarri handia sorrarazten omen digula Erriberako hiriburura jausteak. Euskara zaila da; euskara batua zaila da. Espainola -tú cabes pero yo quepo; sé, supe, supiera o supiese; miro y miré, pero ando y anduve; más DE la mitad, pero más QUE tú- erraza ote da? Edo, bertzenaz adierazia, euskaratik espainolera doan tartea, espainoletik euskarara doana baina motzagoa ote da? Zeren, historikoki, euskaldun gehienek espainola ikasi dute, baina erdaldun gehienek ez dute euskara ikasteko lanik hartu; gure semea hiru urterekin sartu zen ikastolan, artean euskaraz baizik ez zekiela, eta harekin batera bertze haur anitz, artean espainolez baizik ez zekitela: zazpi urteren buruan, gureak erdaraz duen mailak ez du deus ikustekorik duela zazpi urte erdaldun hutsak ziren horietarik anitzek orain euskaraz duten mailarekin. Hizkuntza baten arrakasta ez du soilik (balizko) zailtasunak azaltzen. Oraindik ere, espainola nahitaez bisitatu beharreko hiriburua da; euskara, aldiz, lanak bulkatuta bisitatzen dugun Erriberako herri kozkorra.

Eta zer erran euskara batuaz? Euskalki batetik euskara batura doan tartea, euskalki horretarik espainolera doana baino handiagoa da? Forma estandar batek forma hori ezagutzen ez duten hiztunak akonplejatzeko balio dezake; kontrako norabidean, forma estandarra pedantetzat jo daiteke, eta haren artifizialtasuna eta naturaltasun eskasia -haren autentikotasun falta- salatzekoa izaten ahal da, haren hiztunak komunitatetik kanporatzeko. Horixe gertatu zitzaion Theon Greyjoy gaixoari -“Krokodiloa? Hori da zure akademia fin horretan ikasi duzun euskara arraroa?”-, eta hori gertatu da neurri handi batean Euskal Herrian ere. Autentikotasunaren mistikak -euskalkien jatortasuna vs batuaren zurruntasuna- pisu handia izan du eta badu gure artean: horren lekuko, Wazemankeko txiste ez guti edo, bertze maila batean, Koldo Zuazoren zuazokeria, zeinaren arabera sentimenduak bakarrik euskalkian adieraz baitaitezke -harrapazank, Txiribiton!-. Susmoa dut etxeko euskaldun ez gutirendako teoria inplizitua, euskara batuaren kariaz, hauxe izan dela: euskara batua da nire euskara ez den guzia. Elizondoko nire ikasleek “badatoz”eta “geratu” idazten zuten idazlanetan, ez “heldu dira” eta “gelditu”, euskara batuan egin behar zutelako.

Baina ados nago zurekin: publizitatean huts egin dugu, eta onartu dugu jende gehiegik pentsa dezala euskara batua krokodiloa, orkestra eta Danimarka dela. Eta bai, hiztegia zabaldu egin behar da, eta maileguak problema handirik gabe onartu. Baina euskara batuaren makurrek ez dituzte gure hizkuntzak dituen problema guziak azaltzen. Nire ustez, behinik behin.

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